What are the materials of Buddha statues in different periods
Around 530 BC a full moon night, located in the ancient Indian deer park at sarnath Nigeria on the outskirts of the polo gaya hill, was a 35-year-old crown - qu haze siddhartha - sitting on a tree bi bowl under the tree, after through meditation for seven days and seven nights, and finally realize the ultimate truth, a impact for more than 2500 years in the world of religion in this was, this is Buddhism.
The primitive Buddhism was born under the background of a huge new thought social culture wave. 6 - the 5th century b.c., the social control status, to "vedic apocalypse", "sacrifice everything", "brahman supreme" three big platform for the symbol of India's ancient brahmans, speculative philosophy genres by multiple new emerging challenges, according to the buddhist scripture "sramana fruit by" and so on, in addition to the Buddhism, at that time, there are other so-called "heretics" six division, they explore and think about the new concept of philosophy, formed a powerful doubt, criticism, against the brahmanism sramana thinkers, and Buddha buddhist sangha is one of the most important.
It can be seen that in the context of this cultural thought, primitive Buddhism was opposed to sacrifice and idol worship. As the Buddha's last teaching was: the Buddha's sons should follow the Buddha's invisible dharma, not the Buddha himself or anything else. But around the first century AD, the rise of mahayana Buddhism began to change that. With "bodhisattva", one of the most core the concept of mahayana Buddhism in India widely popular key sudra in northwest region, the region has been profound influence of Greek and Roman culture, as a result, traditional Greek statue arts rapidly and new concept of integration of mahayana Buddhism, the official start of the buddhist images the glorious journey of art. As you can see in figure 1, it is a typical key tora statue, with wavy curls, high nose and deep eyes, and beautiful face, all of which are traces of a strong classical Greek art form.
Secret Buddhism and the golden age of Tibetan statue art
The late mahayana Buddhism had been developing towards the secret religion until the appearance of the nikkei in the 7th century AD, which formally established the independence of the secret Buddhism. Secret in the process of the formation and development of Buddhism, ancient Indian brahmanism selectively absorb ideas, religious rituals, spells, etc., combining with the foundation of mahayana Buddhism, formed a set of unique method, practice for a body close, mouth with hand knotted recite the mantra for language close, heart visualisation of meaning, three corresponding, but Buddha. Secret Buddhism in India under the aegis of the para dynasty prosperous development rapidly, and more active with Hinduism, jainism, constantly mature and perfect, finally produce the highest practice - the supreme yoga magic, along with the prevalence, the secret of the secret method of classic compilation, all kinds of practice achievement method of successive and and spread, make secret Buddhism gods also unprecedented prosperity, also became the secret of bright buddhist art sculpture fountain of creativity.
In the early 13th century, Buddhism was wiped out by the invasion of India by muslims. Generally speaking, in 1203, the last suiyan temple of Indian tantric Buddhism was destroyed, but the eminent monks, buddhist scriptures, buddhist teachings and buddhist works of art that were introduced into Tibet began to develop rapidly here. During the five hundred years from 1300 to 1800, buddhist sculpture art took Tibet as the center and entered a golden age. Special auspicious flowers were produced in Lhasa, Beijing and karka Mongolia respectively, and several production centers with distinct and rich artistic styles were presented. This paper makes a brief introduction.
Model of Tibetan style
Before the 13th century, the style of buddhist statues in Tibet was mainly influenced by the northeast Indian region, which can be seen from the large collection of bronze works from the pala dynasty of India (750-1174 AD) in Tibetan monasteries. These forms of medieval Indian buddhist art formed the basis of the Tibetan sculpture style. In the 13th century AD, the period when Tibetan Buddhism entered its later stage, large-scale temple construction prompted a large number of neighboring nepalese artisans to be recruited to Tibet. They brought the beautiful nepalese art style of newar into Tibet and became another precious gene of Tibetan sculpture art. Recently, the most sought-after and eye-catching statues of dansa in auction and collection circles are works of the golden age of Tibetan statues.
Dhansati temple, located in sangri county, shannan prefecture, Tibet, is the ancestral temple of the panzhu kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. In the first year of jiading (1208), the monk tsaparong who was born into the lang family of the local aristocrat became the master of the temple. Under the strong support of the central government of the central plains, the local government of pachu reached the peak of its power in the 14th century, and built the dansati temple with its rich wealth, and produced a large number of exquisite bronze statues, which were used to worship the abbot sari lingta standing in the grand sutra hall. According to "GongShi", "history of sino-tibetan set", "lang's family history records, such as for Dan, he belongs to a kind of special form of worship, which is different from the general figure of Buddha, for within the niches or shrines, but for the sarira spirit around the tower, a variety of figure of Buddha is less more than 200, up to more than 3000, in the form of mortise and decoration on the spirit, has become the most distinctive artistic features. After the mid-15th century, with the collapse of the panzhu regime, the dansati temple also declined, and in 1966, the dansati temple was completely destroyed. Fortunately, the Italian scholar professor figure together in 1948 had visited when there are remaining part of the temple for Dan's eyes and look to the many stupas, and statues around the tower, later, figure professor qi works published inspection tour in Lhasa, and put forward the keenly for the first time in the book is a special kind of art style, also published a photographer with professor figure together in Francis meyer stupas more pictures taken. These precious pictures and materials became the true evidence of the discovery and study of the statue of dansa. See Dan for temple statues, handed down from ancient times to the body strong, perfect shape, fine casting, gold is shining, decorative colorful characteristics of heavy and complicated, significantly absorbed Nepal's artistic style, but also blended in Tibetan ethnic aesthetic consciousness, and formed with the characteristics of the sectarian ideas and practices the new gods worship system, redesign and created the modelling and in accordance with this ritual, so Dan, temple statues for both in artistic creation or religious ritual ways, represents the highest form of statues art in Tibet. Figure 2 see, is a private collection for the temple statue of dansa, whether accurate and appropriate shape or bright and thick gold gilt, are fully displayed its distinctive artistic characteristics and charm. After the re-research and research of scholars, many museum statues of dansati have been identified one after another, and at the same time set off a new hot spot in the collection circle. It is estimated that the performance of precious dansati statues in the market will be even better.
Yongxuan palace weather
On October 8, 2013, in Hong Kong sotheby's 40th anniversary celebration on the last day of the auction, a young guangdong zhongshan collector for hk $236 million for bought a statue from the Ming dynasty yongle palace casting sakyamuni like (figure 3), the auction so far to become the most expensive in the history of a statue of Buddha, and yong xuan period of Ming dynasty palace statues collection to the height of a landmark.
FIG. 4 is also an outstanding work from yongle palace workshop of Ming dynasty. It is elegant in body, harmonious in proportion, and elegant in face. The court statues of yongle xuande are a peak in history, and their greatest artistic achievement is the perfect combination of the two styles of han and Tibetan art, creating an almost perfect form of statues. According to historical records, Ming, emperor yongle to carry out the policy according to their religious netting, strengthen and Tibetan ethnic unity and friendship, plus the yongle emperor himself is keen on Buddhism, so constantly inviting Tibetan monks, guru lama to Ming dynasty, conferring the lavishly, and to give generous reward, to this end, the court made in court set up special institutions, known as the "Buddha", belonging to "imperial", is the status of the high level professional needed for court of a large number of production of Buddha, thangka, multiplier, sacrifice utensils, etc. Workshop in the palace of these works to Tibetan statues, at the same time into the traditional aesthetic interest and expressional gimmick, of han nationality under the court building craftsman masterly craft, two kinds of different art style to unify perfectly, presents an elegant and perfect and mature new art form, has a history, art, religion, political power, technology and other aspects of important value, not only is a statue of pure beautiful Buddha statues.
According to huang chunhe's research, there are only about 400 statues in existence, and most of them are yongle works. The statues of xuande's court are less than one tenth, which makes them even rarer. FIG. 5 shows a tall xuande statue, which was auctioned by sotheby's and has been included in the collection of a famous European art foundation. This statue obviously continues to maintain the style of yongle, but in the manner temperament appears more dignified and dignified, vigorous and open, and the details of the treatment is still meticulous, excellence. It is no accident that we got such a high price.