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The origin of the the Liuli
. 1 What is LiuLi
  LiuLi refers to the artificial crystal as raw materials, firing from the works of lost wax casting method. Lost wax casting techniques of high technical difficulty, to go through dozens of procedures before they can complete, and can not be called LiuLi by blowing or forming the artificial suppression of crystal products. A few thousand years of history lost-wax casting, peer also said its ancient LiuLi.
  2 Chinese glass (LiuLi) A Brief History
  The ancient Chinese said glass sulfur Lynn, "displaced", "LiuLi from the Northern and Southern, there are quite a Li" said. According to the "Guang Ya" and "rhyme set of records, in quite a long time," LiuLi "of glassy beads of fire, as well as some other transparent material collectively.
  In the Western Zhou Dynasty 3100 years ago, our ancestors began to grasp the glass manufacturing technology. In the early Western Zhou Dynasty tombs in Luoyang, Henan Chong Chun ditch, Baoji, Shaanxi Ru Chuang, found a large number of glass tubes, glass beads. By Chinese and foreign experts with modern spectral identification obtained conclusion is: "lead-barium glass" with the West soda-lime glass, "belong to two different glass systems. This fact indicates that the source of glass in China and the West is different, is independently developed.
  To the Northern Song Dynasty, glass level, there has been a lot of progress. 33 relic bottles unearthed in Henan province, Anhui Tianchang unearthed polished glass, and hundreds of chickens the Henan Mixian unearthed ovate glass bottles are the Northern Song Dynasty glass manufacturing technology progress and the level of glass blowing developed to prove. After the Song dynasties, glassware increased range of use and people's lives more closely. Shandong Boshan Ruoqiang Washi Xia Yuan Dynasty glass workshop ruins and the Yuan and Ming-chu glass workshop sites, China has so far found in the first glass workshop. Hebei Jing of Zhongshan Liu Sheng tomb, along with the famous jade dress unearthed one of the lake green LiuLi ear cup, which is the earliest extant in China using the lost-wax casting technique "the ancient LiuLi art.
  Ming and Qing Dynasties, glass production centers in Shandong Zichuan County town of Yan God (now Boshan County), Guangzhou and Beijing. From Emperor Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty set up a palace of glass field, is capable of producing transparent glass and color up to more than 15 kinds of monochrome opaque glass. Wrapping glass in the Qing Dynasty, the chromatic-carved glass and snuff bottles, the world of glass art treasures.
  Whether grand LiuLi brick corner of the Forbidden City, the throne room, Emperor Queen's maid of the Banwo LiuLi desk front end put like some people delicate, royal collection, and one of the Buddhist as a Qibao: "May I afterlife, too Bodhi body such as LiuLi inside and outside the crystal, the net flawless dirty "-" The pharmacists LiuLi light of the willing "
  The ancient Chinese glass as an independent invention, but the slow development, and has maintained the inherent characteristics, not only has colorful, crystal clear and bright advantages, but also fragile Qing Cui, not heat, not suited to cold and hot temperatures shortcomings. This is because it is the main component of lead-barium, caused by a lower firing temperature. Lead-barium glass is not suitable for the production of eating utensils, only suitable for processing into a variety of decorations, ritual, therefore, compared to ceramics, bronze, jade, glass apparatus uses a small development is inadequate.
3, Brief History of Western glass
  In the 16th century BC, the ancient Egyptian glass beads and glass inlay, Mesopotamia the LiuLi containers. Egypt, 4th century BC, invented the glass mold technology, cars, flowers, engraved and gold plating. The Syrians of the 1st century BC to create the craft of glass blowing liquid glass blown into the vessel of various forms of arbitrary, and Syrian artist silver injected into the glass solution, developed a new glass with metallic luster. 12th century with the development of trade, Venice has become the world center of the glass manufacturing industry, the then Government to monopolize glass manufacturing technology, glass artist concentrated in the island of Murano and Venice across the sea. The heyday of the Venetian glass production is the 15th century to the 16th century, the products are almost exclusively European market. After the 16th century, glass artisans to flee the island, dispersed all over Europe, the glass-making technology has gradually spread.
  Another center of European glass technology Bohemia and Germany. 13th century to the 15th century Gothic era, the local production of a dark green glass, known as the "forest glass". Typical works is a whole body small convex ball of glass, the circle below the high end of the top edge of the outreach. To the 16th century, the top edge extended upward, the formation of a small bowl, this pattern continues to this day, known as the "Rhine glass. In the 17th century, the rapid development of the European glass industry, France has the casting method to produce large area glass mirror and flat glass. The British invented the two most important: First, the lead glass; melting technology innovation and fuel from wood to coal, but also use a closed crucible. In addition, the Swiss Dinan also invented Mixing Method for the manufacture of optical glass, high uniformity of the glass melting has created a new way.
  Industrial revolution so that the glass into the era of large-scale industrial production gradually glass evolve into a production of raw materials as an art medium is no longer human attention, but this does not mean the end of the glass in the history of art, on the contrary, with the production conditions change, the process raise the level of the artists elaborate glass art for its aesthetic value and the volume of industrial products confrontation, which is the memories of the 20th century, late 19th century, personalized handmade art.
  1962 American Harvey Littleton and Dominick Labino based artists began to explore glass as the possibility of artistic media. With the success of the fired glass furnace, glass art and industrial separation possible, thus creating glass art of a landmark in the history of sports - glass art studio movement. Its purpose is to build a personal studio, the artists here can be direct contact with the glass creation, to become the designer of art glass. Glass into living material, the material of the artists creative freedom, so that the shine of this material in the field of pure art. Glass art studio movement launched a number of glass art masters: the Czech Republic Stanislav Libensky and Jaroslava Brychtova, United States DaleChihuly, the Italian master Livio Seguso, Germany Erwin, Eisch, rattan Tianqiao Ping (Kyahei Fujita).
  I must mention in the history of development of Western glass, pate de verre "- lost wax casting glass.
  Lost wax casting method derived from ancient Egypt, the techniques from ancient Egypt, the technology would be extremely difficult, and later lost. Until Henri Cros rediscover the formula, and thus his life energy into the study of this technique, the ultimate success in 1886, to create works (pictured), are collected dow coning museums in the United States. The movement of glass art studio, many artists have chosen this technology, change and amazing artistic effects, such as Czech glass art teacher Stanislav Libensky and Jaroslava Brychtova works.