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Protection of Chinese traditional arts and crafts and heritage
A survival status of Chinese traditional arts and crafts
With modernization, globalization is gradually rising, colorful traditional crafts are rapidly disappearing, people of insight in the world to speak out, modernization can not abandon the traditional, to emphasize cultural diversity, China's actual situation is on , due to the concept and system, are within the traditional process comparable period of laissez-faire state, regardless of the Ministry of Culture, Science and Technology Commission regardless of the State Bureau of Cultural Affairs and the Chinese Academy tube a little, but only a small point, the prolonged absence of executives the home department, leading to the ecological environment of traditional crafts 较诸 wildlife and herbal resources more severe, anyway, in a market economy rapid social reality, the traditional crafts are facing about two situations:
1.1 Historical eliminated naturally disappear.
Such as: known as one of the three Jin Song Jin, from the Southern Song Dynasty onwards prevalent in the southern region, his gorgeous patterns, vivid, hard and tough, stiff, can be used to make advanced framed paintings and costumes, by the people loved. But now the traditional handcrafted Song Jin industry would cease to exist, equipment, pattern data loss seriously, although imitation folk called "Song Jin," are all woven products, the warp density and patterns have aliasing.
1.2 local traditional crafts is declining.
Such as Guangzhou embroidery, Guangzhou ceramic candle flower glass etc. Before, they used to be people essential household items and ornaments, but the failure to adapt to the development of the development of the times and the changing needs of people's lives, gradually novel practical replaced by modern materials, it has become an afterthought. The once glorious moment of local traditional handicrafts to find another way out if you do not, it will face the risk of extinction.
    In an agricultural society to an industrial society, the process of transformation of the traditional society to a modern society, the rich in goods not only dramatically changed the way of life and people's ideas, but also the basis of the material and cultural basis for the existence of the traditional arts and crafts by greatly shaken, the trend irreversible decline.
Two Chinese traditional handicraft conservation and heritage significance
Chinese handicraft has more than ten thousand years of uninterrupted history, after the development of ancient, modern, modern three periods of evolution, we are facing transformation and regeneration test. Metamorphosis does not mean the demise, but in a new way regeneration. However, after all, it is the transformation of metamorphosis reborn. This fact is cruel. But the principle of survival of the fittest applies not only to nature, but also for cultural industries. We clearly see that one hundred years of the 20th century, traditional crafts gradually decline from the peak period, the end of the century, has waned to historical lows. And also in this century between our historical evolution, the law of development, the cultural connotation of the traditional arts and crafts collation and research has become increasingly prosperous, to the end of the century has reached unprecedented heights. The contrast is interesting, but not surprising, they are accompanied by social development and progress occurs. Transition and change are closely linked with the former society is a fact that has occurred, not theoretical problems. The latter is the level of knowledge and greatly enhance the level of awareness on the basis of historical summary and forecast of future trends, how to combine theoretical and practical issues. This paper from since modern transformation of traditional crafts potential factors that conflict with traditional handicraft industrial society to analyze the future of the 21st century, traditional arts and crafts. Conclusion is correct or not, remains to be the test of practice.
  Modern 2.1: Potential transformation factor
 Early 20th century, China's political system and social environment has undergone profound changes ever overturned years of feudal system, the establishment of a republic; the New Culture Movement Youyi Cuikulaxiu trend cleaned up the old ideology and stereotypes, thus opening up a new era of Chinese cultural history. However, in such a dramatic shock among society, traditional arts and crafts from the surface does not seem to change much, largely inherited the style and skill of the Qing Dynasty, weak to continue for decades when the strong. But it social forms, to analyze the relevance of lifestyle, you can see the potential for transformation is about to force it to happen.
2.1.2 traditional handicraft market shrinking
In ancient China, the use of arts and crafts involved in almost every aspect of society. In the "men plow and women weave" natural economic environment, arts and crafts provide most of the required and desired social life, large imperial dress, ritual, small civil wedding dress, paper horse. Court and pet needs, in particular large bureaucracy to upscale craft had greatly stimulated its production, the gold, jade, lacquer, wood, silk, embroidery and other sectors of the art reached its apex. But the Revolution caused by the sudden change of government, so Dingdai flower Ling, robes beads were abolished overnight, with a mark of craftsmanship feudal hierarchy immediately out of the market. This is one aspect of the market shrink. On the other hand, since the late Qing Dynasty, China entered the stream of Western life products, such as calico, foreign oil lamp, Yang Huo, foreign socks, fans, lamps, clocks, etc., and gradually occupied the metropolitan market, and even the Empress, Guangxu have a piano and a sofa. 1893 (Guangxu nineteen years) Shanghai installed lamp 6325, the following year to reach 9091. Subsequently, Beijing, Tianjin, including the Palace Court ban are installed from the lamp (Jiaorun Ming: "China Modern Cultural History"). Thus, practical handicraft production will inevitably be marginalized.
2.1.2 to recognize the value of the offset handicrafts
Originally there were two categories of traditional handicrafts. One is the high-end products (later called special process). Both ornamental and collection value. One is the popularity of real products, direct services to people's lives. In feudal society, the high-end products have been the few people amass wealth of objects, antiquities will be considered as "antique" collection. According to the "seizure and family property list" He Jiayu library of "Yu-ting thirteen two feet five inches tall, Yu Qing twenty, one hundred thirty-two Ruyi handle, Ruyi inlaid handle one thousand one hundred and six ... ... More than 7,002,000 total price of silver. " Antique has "twenty bronze bottle, ancient bronze tripod twenty-one, bronze sea thirty-three ...... More than 8,002,000 total price of silver," and so on. Since the Republic of China, although there are practical handicrafts tendency to shrink, but the big landlords and upstart merchant demand for high-end products did not have the slightest decrease. Therefore, the value of handicrafts obviously biased in favor of high-end specialty products. Significantly increased economic value and collection value, so that the practical value seems insignificant. From Ming to abnormal development of the Suzhou Industrial Arts is an example, then with mahogany furniture, jade, jewelry, bowls and chopsticks, embroidery for the bulk, basically specialty crafts.
 2.1.3 craft creative concept difficult to synchronize with the times
Creation of the modern concept of traditional crafts among long-term stay in the Qing Dynasty style, few changes for many reasons. One son successive generations of succession in mentoring, skills and style to make stylized, sometimes difficult to reverse. As the "Research", he said: "Those who create things, clever person said it; keep the world, that of the workers." Second, the imbalance of cultural transformation of modern, traditional handicraft can not quickly move closer with the times. Beginning of the last century, when the southeast region and metropolitan suit when there have been more remote areas still to young girls bound feet, appeared on the social mix of ancient and modern, both Chinese and Western phenomenon, traditional crafts seem at a loss. Some people feel that things change, innovation to win market, where there is a fashion portrait Jingdezhen porcelain. Some people in the psychological adventures, and lost not open the traditional concept, it creates a mixture of non-western Central African style. Such as Suzhou Dongshan carved buildings, both Chinese auspicious pattern and round-Hyo carving, there are Roman and Renaissance carved stigma, disorganized. Only embroidery more thorough transformation occurs unconsciously. In ancient embroidery skills-oriented, the Ming Lu Hong Park "Embroidery" created with embroidered imitation painting techniques, and widely circulated. In practical embroidery increasingly recession, but this process is booming, but it is not the traditional sense of the embroidery. Third, high above the living reality of high-end products, has always been for the appreciation of the collections and plaything, with antique for the top grade, nature can ignore social change. In short, traditional arts and crafts in modern times changed and unchanged, it may become a non-change of edge line herald the transformation of a wind irresistible will sweep China.
  2.2 Modern: the inevitability of transformation
After five decades of the 20th century, China's economy has been large fluctuations since the traditional handicraft but the ups and downs, this is bound to cause us to ponder: what such a "difference" mean? It means that industrialized societies, traditional crafts transformation is bound to happen is an objective law. The factors contributing to this transformation is multifaceted.
  2.2.1 incompatible with the market economy mode of production
20th Century 50--60 years, traditional crafts experienced a rare renaissance. Under the direct supervision of government departments at all levels, instead of scattered individuals collective workshops, arts and crafts founded in two ways colleges and inherited his father's talent cultivation successor. In the economic leverage of foreign trade in the process of planning economy to market institutional transformation, many plant community is difficult to maintain, and even collapse. The individual workshops and gradually rise, mainly manual handicraft production, product design and production can be done one by one, with the industrialization of mass production is completely different, often because of material applied technology. Clustered assembly line and grade wage system to create personal enthusiasm flooded in the "iron rice bowl", in the new economic system is bound to get into trouble. The result is a large number of real products from the industrial mass production, such as daily-use ceramics, furniture; a small amount of special handicraft carved by the workshop, such as jewelry, gold and silver jewelry and so on, the phenomenon of polarization occurred.
  2.2.2 and lifestyle products from
Traditional handicrafts in the modern decline more direct reason is disengaged from the industrial society lifestyle. 20th Century 50--70 years, Chinese people's life, although simple, actually has serious "Westernization" tendency. Western-style clothing such as monotonous, simple Western-style housing, not shift the bike, steam locomotive, and so on. In addition to traditional arts and crafts for foreign exchange, and people's lives have been very far away. Since the mid-1980s, the Chinese people's lives from the "subsistence" to "well-off", "well-off" approach, Westernization trend to accelerate and improve the living environment, the popularity of home appliances, extending the highway, the increase of private cars, The rapid development of information industry, are making people's values, aesthetic concepts, spatial and temporal concept has undergone fundamental changes, the required basic necessities, rely mainly on industrial products, cheap. Crafts although prices rose, but the "highbrow." One female entrepreneur has spent a lot to establish a Red Sandalwood Museum, and few people can do so? Visible, modern lifestyle and culture, will inevitably lead to material aspects of traditional culture contraction, which are difficult to get rid of this national law.
  2.2.3 "innovation" in error
Traditional crafts in the long process of historical development is never static, but always with the times in the "flow", it and thus formed a rich variety of historical styles. Modern "innovation" is not able to make it again with the confluence with the times? Two innovations of the 1970s attempted to show it is very difficult. In the "Cultural Revolution" farce, traditional crafts in the "Model" under the influence, there have been a direct reflection of revolutionary themes or "Model" of a plot climax, it can be called "model operas" type of innovation. This innovative basically ruled out the laws of art. With the end of the "Cultural Revolution", an innovative subsequently disappeared. The late 1970s, undone, in order to revitalize traditional arts and crafts, and made a "renaissance" of innovation attempt, which is to promote the revival of "Han and Tang style", "Dunhuang style" and so on. Intended to get rid of a few decades of the Ming and Qing style bondage, to draw nourishment from classical art to make it have a wider creative field. However, this disguised retro 70 - 80's hard to receive the desired results, the two "innovation," there is a deeper reason for the encounter, one of the differences in understanding of the traditional culture. Chinese traditional culture of diversity goes without saying. But the eyes of the traditional arts and crafts in general tend to be fixed in the Ming and Qing style, not only because they are directly linked to modern times and, and many relics of the Ming and Qing, such as architecture, landscape, furniture, painting, drama, fiction, and so on, they and Crafts Fusion is a landscape of classical culture, forming a stereotype understanding. Experts praised the preparation for the Han and Tang Dynasties, Dunhuang and other art but unfamiliar. Hanshan Temple in Suzhou in recent years, build up an imitation Tangta, by many people as "Japanese." If it always revival, even at high artistic level, it is difficult for most people appreciate. Second, the improvement can not save traditional crafts. Both "innovation" are keeping the traditional handicraft skills, lower material complete premise extreme expression means, but done on the subject switching, make local improvements. It turns out that in modern society, traditional arts and crafts or to the established historical patterns show profound; or make the separation techniques and styles, through re-combination with modern elements, in order to integrate the environment in industrialized societies, thereby obtaining "regeneration."
   2.3 Regeneration of the road: reborn
In the 21st century, China's traditional arts and crafts, there are three possible ways to survive. One is the whole heritage. In addition to the small number of natural habitat of the species, but also to protect the best varieties and masters from the height of the Cultural Ecology artificially, so as not to be lost. One is the traditional skills and modern style combine that with the modern aesthetic sense of re-creation of traditional crafts, and make the environment to adapt to modern life, such as modern ceramics, it changes shape, glaze, painted and texture aspects are with modernist and art after modernism have thousands of silk square floor contact. One is separated from the craft out of style, so that in combination with modern materials and processes. Only style transplant, no art heritage, like the good old ancient form of modern style. Chinese-style clothing such as dressmaking, New Zealand trip made false deduction, you can cut a piece of floral brocade and other alternatives. This form of sustenance both national feelings of the Chinese people, but also to adapt to a modern environment will be very tenacious vitality. These three types, the latter two are in separate style and artistry of characteristics, from which we can see traditional crafts "Metamorphosis - regeneration" of the law.
 2.3.1 form and ideological content separation and transplantation
Meaning of Traditional handicraft is very rich, difficult a nutshell. But fundamentally speaking, the hierarchy it took part in the Chinese traditional culture of hierarchy, Respect ancestors cosmic thinking religious thought, between heaven and never forgetting the heritage awareness, evil Najib folk tradition blend a. However social change often force levels and forms of traditional arts and crafts spirit endoplasmic phase peeling, or to old forms into a new ideological content, or the performance of old ideas in a new form. Typical old form new connotation than Beijing Forbidden City from the Royal Court ban into a museum, the southern garden from a private garden became a People's Park. In addition, our common to Peking Opera, Nuo opera masks for decoration of the phenomenon, which is exactly what role or what God is not as important as it embodies the charm of Chinese culture and style. Modern Pei just for good luck, about the gentleman who remember Confucius teachings jade Bede it? The so-called old connotation of new forms of combination, refers to a modern way reflect the ancient concepts and ideas. Modern fashion design as those in Chinese culture as the theme of the works of modern minority costume design stage was like that. Again, the yin and yang said to be very old concept of the universe, in the traditional arts and crafts, the representative of the Quartet's four gods of this concept is the most intuitive reflection. 2001 "Art and Science" seminar series of posters "Five Elements" (see "decorative" 2001 four Cover) on the performance of the five elements, colored concept with new visual image. Lee creative sculptures made "objects of the Road" (see "decorative" 2001 four color pages) is based on "yin and yang, hold each other," meaning modern works.
  2.3.2 form and skills of isolation and transplantation
Traditional Chinese arts and crafts style formation depends primarily on the ideological content. At the same time, unique materials and processes is an important aspect. As cultural heritage, style and skill is always a whole. But to integrate into modern society, but can not separate them. Because the material and artistry brings both a unique style, it also brings limitations, want to make as engraved ivory fine jade to make work impossible. The modern society does not attach importance to the economic value of jade and ivory, but China does not need expensive, wind and become decorations and supplies. If the formation of the traditional crafts and skills from a fixed relationship, there is a re-creation of space. Soft sculpture performance as pottery patterns, carpet performance Han Stone, with a large-scale imitation jade carving wooden reliefs are successful attempt. In turn, the traditional skills reflect the new theme is also a transplant, supra has when it comes to the modern pottery that is the model. However, nor is any subject are suitable to the traditional process. There is a display with figurines of modern production techniques and programming large colorful characters, change advantages and disadvantages, difficult to succeed.
  2.3.3 Form and practical separation and transplantation
Traditional crafts have been closely linked with the past life, a number of products for the life time of service, has a strong practical value. In the modern lifestyle and living environment, their practical value is also reduced or even disappear, form and practicality of separation is inevitable. As the old southern houses pane, use separate different styles, forming beautiful geometric patterns. In modern buildings already completely without this wooden panes, but in interior decoration, they are hanging on the wall, or made false window, but popular, and even the old made new panes do phenomenon. Again, clothing embroidery become pendant, stone hitching post, and plug in the yard, and so on. These used to be very useful products have been ported to the display of ancient civilizations and among folk decorations, you never have use value. Such a "transformation - regeneration" say that it is very typical. In short, traditional arts and crafts style will be eternal, however, it is "regeneration" paid a high price, that is reborn transformation.